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分詞短語


1) 作定語作定語用的分詞如果是單詞,一般放在它所修飾的名詞之前。如: I’m reading a very interesting book.我在讀一本很有趣的書。 He likes to drink cold boiled water. 他喜歡喝涼開水。

分詞短語作定語用時,一般皆放在它所修飾的名詞的後面。它的功用相當於定語從句。如: China is a developing socialist country belonging to the Third world.中國是一個發展中的社會主義國家,屬於第三世界。

The man sitting it the corner is my brother.坐在角落裡的那個人是我的兄弟。

Most of the people invited to the party did not come.被邀請參加晚會的人多數沒有來。 2)作表語

The opera is very moving and instructive.這個歌劇很動人,且有教育意義。 The cups are broken.這些杯子是破的。 He is married.他已經結婚了。

[注] 分詞作表語用時,相當於形容詞,不可與進行時態和被動語態中的分詞混淆起來。它們的形式相似,但可以從意義上加以辨別。試比較:

Lei Feng’s spirit is inspiring the people all over the country. 雷鋒的精神鼓舞著全國人民。

His report is inspiring. 他的報告令人鼓舞。

The road was completed by the PLA men.這條路是解放軍戰士修成的。 The road is completed.這條路已經築成。

3)作狀語分詞在意義上也可用作狀語,表示時間、原因、方式和伴隨情況等。 a)表示時間。如:

Looking out of the window,I saw groups of children passing by the house.我從視窗望出去,看見成群的孩子們從房子前面走過。 Heated,the metal expands.這種金屬加熱後即膨脹。

Opening the drawer he took out a dictionary.他打開抽屜,拿出一本詞典。

[注]如果要強調分詞短語與謂語動詞所表示的時間關係,分詞短語之前可用when或while等連詞。如:

While working in the factory ,I learnt a lot from the workers.我在工廠工作期間,從工人那裡學到了很多東西。 When heated,the metal expands.這種金屬加熱後即膨脹。 b)表示原因。如:

Feeling tired, I telephoned and said I couldn’t come to a hospital of Chinese medicine.我感到累,打電話說我不能去。

Thinking that Chinese medicine might help,he went to a hospital of Chinese medicine.他想中醫也許有效,於是到一家中醫醫院去治病。

Inspired by the excellent situation they worked even harder.在太好形勢的鼓舞下,他們更加努力工作。

c)表示方式、伴隨情況及結果。如: He came running back to tell us the news.他跑著回來告訴我們這個訊息。 She stood there waiting for the bus.她站在那兒等公共汽車。

The child fell,striking head against the door and cutting it.小孩摔了一跤,頭在門上碰破了。

He went out slamming the door.他走出去砰地一聲把門關上。 The lichens came borne by storms.這些地衣是由暴風雨帶來的。

分詞的否定結構

現在分詞的否定式由not後加現在分詞構成。如:

Not knowing what to do,she went to the teacher for help.她不知道該怎么辦,就去請老師幫助。 I left at noon,not staying for lunch.我是中午走的,沒有留下來吃午飯。 過去分詞表否定時,常藉助un-等前綴表示。如: The boy was left uncared for.那孩子無人照管。

含有分詞的複合賓語

分詞可作複合賓語中的賓語補足語。可有這種複合賓語的動詞有see,watch,hear,set,keep,find,have,get等等。如:

We saw them walking across the road.我們看見他們穿過那條馬路。

We heard the children singing “I Love Beijing’s Tian An Men”我們聽見孩子們唱《我愛北京天安門》。

I found my hometown almost completely rebuilt.我發現故鄉幾乎全部改建過了。

在have或get後面的複合賓語中,賓語補足語多是過去分詞,而它所表示的動作又往往由別人所完成。如:

We must get the television set repaired.我們必須把電視機修好。 I had my watch mended in town.我在城裡修的表。

If we have shortcomings,we are not afraid to have them pointed out and criticized.我們如果有缺點,就不怕別人批評指出。

但have的複合賓語中的過去分詞的動作有時不一定由別人來完成,而是表自己的經驗。如: He had his arm broken.他把手臂折斷了。

[注一]上述句子結構變為被動語態時,除主語和賓語互換位置外,分詞不動。如上面的第一、二例句即可變為:They were seen walking across the road.

The children were heard singing“I Love Beijing Tian An Men”。

[注二]現在分詞在複合賓語中和動詞不定式在複合賓語中的意義稍有不同。後者指事情的全過程,目的在於僅僅說明發生了這件事;前者指正在繼續的動作的一部分,目的在於將該動作當時進行的情景呈現於讀者之前,其含義相當於進行時態。如:

I saw him go upstairs.我看見他上樓去了。 I saw him going upstairs.我看見他走上樓的。

I was working in the room all morning· I heard somebody All knock at the next door.我整個上午在房間工作,聽見有人敲隔壁房間的門。

When I went back to the room,I heard her practicing singing in the next room.我回房間時聽見她在隔壁房間練歌。

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